This surgery is performed with extracorporeal circulation and general anesthesia in the operating room. The procedure consists of replacing the aortic valve with a mechanical or biological prosthesis, a choice that depends on the patient. Mechanical prostheses are placed in younger patients with a life expectancy of more than 25 years and require life-long anticoagulant therapy. Biological prostheses have the great advantage of not needing anticoagulation, but they last approximately 20 years. However, there are alternative methods for aortic valve replacement of a biological valve in case of early degeneration.